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Class 12

Open Source Concepts

Very Short Answer Questions

  1. What is OSS?
    Open Source Software (OSS) is the software whose source code is available and which can be modified, copied and redistributed.
  2. Expand the terms:
    OSI – Open Source Initiative
    FLOSS – Free Libre and Open Source Software
    FSF – Free Software Foundation
    GNU – GNU’s Not Unix
    GPL – General Public License
    W3C – World Wide Web Consortium
    OSS – Open Source Software
  3. Define Freeware and Shareware.
    Freeware is a software that are available at no code but cannot be modified.
    Shareware is a software for which license fee is payable after some time limit.
  4. What for are these software used?
    a) Linux: It is a popular computer operating system. It is not only freely available, but it also provides it sunderlying source code for free. Linux is part of the popular web server set of programs – LAMP.
    b) Mozilla Firefox: It is one of the most popular web browsers available on the Internet.
    c) PHP: It is a widely-used open-source programming language primarily used for server-side applications and developing dynamic web content.
    d) Python: It is an interpreted, interactive programming language created by Guido van Rossum in 1990.
    e) Apache: It is an open-source web server available for many platforms.
    f) MySQL: It is one of the most popular open source database system in the world. MySQL works on many platforms, and also supports many programming languages.
  5. What is openoffice.org?
    It is an office applications suite. OpenOffice is compatible with Microsoft Office. It is a free software.
  6. What is a standard?
    A standard basically refers to an established set of rules or requirements, which are approved by a recognized body and/or is widely used across various software platforms.
  7. Name two categories of standards.
    The two categories of standards are:
    a) Proprietary Standards
    b) Open Standards
  8. Which of the following are open standards?
    .ogg (Yes)
    .DOC (No)
    .SVG (yes)
    .TTF (No)
    .JPEG (Yes)
  9. Name the open standard for the following:
    a) web page – HTML
    b) office document – ODF
    c) vector images – SVG
    d) audio compression – OGG
    e) any image type – PNG
  10. What is a font? What is OTF?
    A font refers to a set of displayable text characters called glyphs, having specific style and size.
    OTF (Open Type Font) format is an extension of the True Type Font format. They are 16-bit fonts.
  11. What are different font categories?
    Fonts can be categorized as:
    a) True Type Font
    b) Open Type Font
  12. Define:
    a) ODF – Open Document Format is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as formatted text documents, spreadsheets, electronic presentations, graphics, etc.
    b) Ogg Vorbis – It is a new audio compression format which is an open format developed by xiph.org.
    c) TTF – True Type Font is a font format developed by Apple and licensed to Microsoft. It is the native operating system font format for Windows and MacOS. They are normally 8-bit fonts.
    d) OTF – Open Type Font format is an extension of the True Type Font format. They are 16-bit fonts.
  13. What is keymap based text entry?
    A keymap broadly refers to mappings of keyboard’s keys to character. The whole arrangement of keymappings of all the characters on a keyboard is known as keymap.
    When we type text from a keyboard having keymappings of Indian Language Characters, it is known as keymap based text entry.
  14. What is Unicode? What is ISCII?
    Unicode is the new universal coding standard that is being adopted by all newer platforms. It provides a unique number for each character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language.
    ISCII (Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange) is an 8-bit code that retains all ASCII characters and offers coding for Indian scripts also.
  15. What is Indian Script keymap known as?
    Indian Script keymaps are known as Inscript keymaps or Indian Script keymaps.
  16. What is Unicode? Name one Indian language, which is supported by Unicode.
    Unicode is the new universal coding standard that is being adopted by all newer platforms. It provides a unique number for each character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. Devnagri is one Indian language, which is supported by Unicode.
  17. With what aim Unicode was developed?
    The main aim behind the development of Unicode was to have a single standard code for all known languages of the world.

Short Answer Questions

  1. What are open source based software?
    Open Source Software are software that can be freely used in terms of making modifications, constructing business models around the software and so on, but it does not have to be free of charge.
  2. Compare and contrast:
    a) Free software and Open Source software
    Free Software means the software is freely accessible and can be freely used, changed, improved, copied and distributed by all who wish to do so.
    Open Source Software are software that can be freely used in terms of making modifications, constructing business models around the software and so on, but it does not have to be free of charge.
    b) OSS and FLOSS
    Open Source Software refers to software whose source code is available to customers and it can be modified and redistributed without any limitation.
    Free Libre and Open Source Software refers to the software which is both free as well as open source.
    c) Proprietary software and Free software
    Proprietary Software is a software that is neither open nor freely available.
    Free Software is a software which is available for free of cost and which allows copying and further distribution, but not modification, and whose source code is not available.
    d) Freeware and Shareware
    Freeware is a software which is available for free of cost and which allows copying and further distribution, but not modification, and whose source code is not available.
    Shareware is a software which is made available with the right to redistribute copies, but it is stipulated that if one intends to use the software, often after a certain period of time, then a license fee should be paid.
    e) Freeware and Free software
  3. Write short notes on:
    a) GNU: GNU project emphasizes on freedom. It was initiated by Richard M. Stallman with an objective to create a system compatible to Unix but not identical with it. Now it offers a wide range of free and open source software, including applications apart from operating systems.
    b) Linux: It is a popular computer operating system. It is not only freely available, but it also provides it sunderlying source code for free. Linux is part of the popular web server set of programs – LAMP.
    c) Mozilla: It is a software which is free and also very popular. It is free, cross-platform, Internet software suite that includes a web browser, an e-mail client, an HTML editor and an IRC client.
    d) Apache: Apache is an open source web server available for many platforms such as BSD, Linux, Microsoft Windows, etc. Apache web server is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of Apache Software Foundation.
    e) PostgreSQL: It is a free software object-oriented database server, released under the flexible BSD-style license. It is an alternative to other open source database systems such as MySQL, Firebird, etc.
    f) Python: It is an interpreted, interactive programming language created by Guido van Rossum in 1990, originally as a scripting language. Python is developed as an open-source project, managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation.
    g) PHP: It is a widely-used open-source programming language primarily used for server-side applications and developing dynamic web content. PHP’s ease of use and similarity with the most common structured programming languages allows most experienced programmers to start developing complex applications with a minimal knowledge.
    h) OpenOffice: It is an office applications suite. OpenOffice is compatible with Microsoft Office. It is a free software. It is based on the code from an older version of StarOffice that was acquired and made open-source by Sun Microsystems.
    i) OSI: Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to cause of promoting open source software. OSI specifies the criteria for open source software and properly defines the terms and specifications of open source software.
    j) Tomcat: It functions as a servlet container developed under the Jakarta Project at the Apache Software Foundation. Tomcat implements the servlet and the Java Server Pages specifications from Sun Microsystems. It is considered to be an application server.
  4. Discuss different categories of technological standard.
    Following are the two categories of technological standards:
    a) Proprietary Standard: These are the standards for which users have to buy license to use them. These are owned by a single company/person/vendor or a group of vendors.
    b) Open Standard: The specifications of open standards is open to all i.e. publicly and freely available without any restrictions. The principles of open standards are: availability, maximize end-user choice, no royalty, no discrimination, implementations may be extended, predatory practices.
  5. What characteristics make a standard an open standard?
    Following characteristics make a standard an open standard:
    a) availability,
    b) maximize end-user choice
    c) no royalty
    d) no discrimination
    e) implementations may be extended
    f) predatory practices
  6. What are the dangers associated with proprietary standards?
    Following are the dangers associated with proprietary standards:
    a) Recipient may not be able to read the file.
    b) You may transmit confidential information.
    c) Single supplier or vendor has total control over the functionality and usefulness of the product.
  7. Mention some advantages of open standards.
    Following are the advantages of open standards:
    a) Making the data accessible to all.
    b) Application and platform independence.
    c) No hidden information.
    d) Diversity and interoperability in the industry.
    e) Offers diverse choices for users.
  8. Name and discuss briefly some common open standard formats.
    Following are some common open standard formats:
    a) Plain text: text without any formatting.
    b) HTML: Standard language for the web.
    c) JPEG: Most efficient picture compression format.
    d) OGG: Lossy audio compression format, totally open source and with a free license.
    e) FLAC: Lossless compression format that is totally open.
  9. What is ODF? Discuss briefly.
    Open Document Format is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as formatted text documents, spreadsheets, electronic presentations, graphics, etc. The ODF standard was developed by OASIS. ODF is an open format and free.
  10. What are the following ODF file extensions meant for?
    a) odt – for word processing (text documents)
    b) ods – for spreadsheet files
    c) odp – for electronic presentation files
    d) odg– for graphics file
    e) odb – for database files
  11. What is the significance of Unicode in terms of Indian Language Computing?
    The Unicode Standard has incorporated Indian scripts under the group named Asian Scripts. The Indian scripts included are Devnagari, Bengali, Gurumukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam. The Indian language block of Unicode Standard is based on ISCII-1998.
  12. Compare and contrast:
    a) TTF and OTF
    True Type Font is a font format developed by Apple and licensed to Microsoft. It is the native operating system font format for Windows and MacOS. They are normally 8-bit fonts.
    Open Type Font format is an extension of the True Type Font format. They are 16-bit fonts.
    b) Static and Dynamic Fonts
    In static fonts, the characters are designed and digitized and then stored in font files.
    In dynamic fonts, the characters are redefined at each occurrence rather than when the font is created and digitized.
  13. How is phonetic text entry different from keymap based text entry?
    In phonetic text entry, traditional keyboards with English keys are used. But while typing, the Indian alphabets are written phonetically.
    When we type text from a keyboard having keymappings of Indian Language Characters, it is known as keymap based text entry.
  14. Ms Vidya Chauhan is confused between Proprietary Software and Open Source Software. Mention at least two points of difference to help her understand the same.
    Following are the two differences between Proprietary Software and Open Source Software:
    a) Proprietary Software is neither open nor freely available. Whereas in Open Source Software, the source code is available to customers.
    b) In Proprietary Software, further distribution and modification is either forbidden or requires special permission by the supplier or vendor. Whereas in Open Source Software, the source code can be modified and redistributed without any limitation.

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