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Class 11

General OOP Concepts

  • Paradigm means organizing principle of a program. It is an approach to programming.
  • Procedural Programming aims more at procedures. The emphasis is on doing things.
  • Modular Programming combines related procedures in a module and hides data under modules.
  • Object Oriented Programming is developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional programming approaches. It aims at the objects and their interface.
  • Module is a set of related procedures with the data they manipulate.
  • Object is an identifiable entity with some characteristics and behavior.
  • Class is a group of objects that share common properties and relationships.
  • Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including background details or explanations.
  • Encapsulation is the wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit called class. It is a way to implement abstraction.
  • Modularity is the property of a system that has been decomposed into a set of cohesive and loosely coupled modules. It reduces complexity to some degree. It also creates a number of well-defined, documented boundaries within the program.
  • Inheritance is the capability of one class of things to inherit capabilities or properties from another class.
  • Superclass or base class is a class whose properties are inherited by other classes.
  • Derived class or Subclass is a class which inherits properties from its base class. It defines only those features that are unique to it. Rest is inherited from its base class.
  • Polymorphism is the ability for a message or data to be processed in more than one form.
  • Programming languages like BASIC, C, Pascal, COBOL lack OOP concepts.
  • LLL or Low Level Language is machine oriented, in which instructions are written in binary code.
  • HLL or High Level Language use English-like constructs, and thus is very easy to program.
  • C and C++ are known as middle level languages because they are close to machine level as well as programmer.

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