Paradigm means organizing principle of a program. It is an approach to programming.
Procedural Programming aims more at procedures. The emphasis is on doing things.
Modular Programming combines related procedures in a module and hides data under modules.
Object Oriented Programming is developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional programming approaches. It aims at the objects and their interface.
Module is a set of related procedures with the data they manipulate.
Object is an identifiable entity with some characteristics and behavior.
Class is a group of objects that share common properties and relationships.
Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including background details or explanations.
Encapsulation is the wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit called class. It is a way to implement abstraction.
Modularity is the property of a system that has been decomposed into a set of cohesive and loosely coupled modules. It reduces complexity to some degree. It also creates a number of well-defined, documented boundaries within the program.
Inheritance is the capability of one class of things to inherit capabilities or properties from another class.
Superclass or base class is a class whose properties are inherited by other classes.
Derived class or Subclass is a class which inherits properties from its base class. It defines only those features that are unique to it. Rest is inherited from its base class.
Polymorphism is the ability for a message or data to be processed in more than one form.
Programming languages like BASIC, C, Pascal, COBOL lack OOP concepts.
LLL or Low Level Language is machine oriented, in which instructions are written in binary code.
HLL or High Level Language use English-like constructs, and thus is very easy to program.
C and C++ are known as middle level languages because they are close to machine level as well as programmer.